Gwendolyn McKee


This article examines third party standing cases in the United States, Canada, and Australia. It demonstrates that third party standing can only be understood with reference to the role of modern courts in broad-based, constitutional style rights protection. This type of protection has been the main factor driving courts to create exceptions to the traditional standing requirements. It is only once these exceptions have been established that a court begins to consider allowing third party standing in cases that do not involve rights. The effects of this theory can be seen in the three countries examined in this article.